VIASURE Coronavirus 229E + NL63 + OC43 + HKU1 Real Time PCR Detection Kit is designed for the specific identification and differentiation of Coronavirus 229E, NL63, OC43 and/or HKU1 strains in respiratory samples from patients with signs and symptoms of respiratory infection.
This test is intended to be used as an aid in the diagnosis of Coronavirus 229E, NL63, OC43 and HKU1 strains in combination with clinical and epidemiological risk factors.
RNA is extracted from specimens, amplified using RT-PCR and detected using fluorescent reporter dye probes specific for Coronavirus 229E, NL63, OC43 and HKU1 strains.
Lower respiratory tract disease accounts for, approximately, four million deaths annually worldwide. A wide variety of viruses can be held responsible for this, one of them being Coronaviruses, which belong to the Coronaviridae family. These globally distributed viruses are large enveloped viruses containing a single-stranded RNA genome of positive polarity. They are directly related to diseases for the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system, being the most common symptoms the following: fever, digestive problems, rhinitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, otitis, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia or severe complications such as meningitis.
Coronaviruses are characterized for their division into three serotypes or groups. Groups 1 and 2 refer to mammalian Coronaviruses, whilst group 3 consists of avian Coronaviruses. Common human Coronaviruses are the HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63 and HCoV-HKU1 strains. Their pathways of transmission are unclear, being air suspected as their main vehicle of transmission, even though they are known to be ubiquitous to the environment. HCoVs are difficult to detect via common diagnosing methods, because they are normally codetected with other respiratory viruses, such as HRSV or influenzas, and there are minimal differences between strains regarding symptomatology.
Given all this, Real Time PCR is one of the preferred methods to diagnose Coronaviruses due to its specificity. More concretely, Real Time PCR that sets the nucleoprotein gene for strains 229E, OC43 and NL63, plus the replicase gene for strain HKU1 as targets.