Zika (ZIKV), Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) are arboviruses that share mosquitos of the Aedes genus as common vector, specifically A. aegypti and A. albopictus. Environmental changes, urbanization and the globalization of travel have enhanced the spread of ZIKV, DENV and CHIKV resulting in epidemics and the co-circulation in overlapping geographic areas as well as the possibility of viral coinfection within a single host.

Currently the major endemic regions include Africa, Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands and the Americas. Besides, these arboviruses cause similar clinical presentations, especially in the initial stages of infection (fever, headache, skin rash, muscle and join pain, and gastrointestinal symptoms).

In fact, due to neither virus possesses any specific distinguishing clinical features and the outcomes and management strategies for these three viruses are vastly different, an early and accurate diagnosis is imperative. Therefore, ZIKV, DENV and CHIKV must be initially included in the differential diagnosis for a patient with suspicious clinical symptoms who is living in or returning from travel to an endemic area.

Available tests for the diagnosis of Zika, Dengue & Chikungunya: