CerTest Shigella dysenteriae + STX one step combo card test is a coloured chromatographic immunoassay for the simultaneous qualitative detection of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 and Shiga toxin (STX) produced by Shigella dysenteriae in stool samples and Shigella dysenteriae suspected colonies in stool culture.
CerTest Shigella dysenteriae + STX combo card test offers a simple and highly sensitive screening assay to make a presumptive diagnosis of Shigella dysenteriae infection (shigellosis) and it could be used to identify of suspected isolates of Shigella dysenteriae from selective media (stool culture).
The four species of the genus Shigella; S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei cause a wide spectrum of illness from watery diarrhoea to fulminant dysentery. The low infectious inoculum, as few as 10 organisms, render Shigella highly contagious.
Shigellosis therefore occurs as an endemic disease in populations characterized by over-crowding, poor housing, poor sanitation and inadequate water supply. The predominant serogroups of Shigella occurring in a region also appears to be related to the socioeconomic development; and evidence also indicates that the severity of shigellosis is related to the infecting serogroup.
S. dysenteriae serotype 1 (also known as S. dysenteriae type 1 or S. dysenteriae 1), has been recognized as the major cause of epidemic dysentery for nearly 100 years.
Pandemics of Shiga dysentery have spread across Central America, Bangladesh, South Asia and Central and East Africa. All four species of Shigella, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei, contain large plasmids, which are required for the invasion of bacteria into epithelial cells, as well as virulence loci encoded on the chromosome. However, only one species of Shigella,S. dysenteriae serotype 1, has been demonstrated to produce a toxin, called Shiga toxin (STX).
Infections with Shiga toxin-producing bacteria are known to cause bloody diarrhea (hemorrhagic colitis). In some patients, most often children and the elderly, infections are accompanied by a more serious disease, the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is characterized by acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia.