VIASURE Real Time PCR Detection Kits
VIASURE Legionella Real Time PCR Detection Kit is designed for specific identification of Legionella in clinical samples from patients with signs and symptoms of legionellosis.
This test is intended for use as an aid in the diagnosis of Legionella in combination with clinical and epidemiological risk factors.
DNA is extracted from clinical specimens, multiplied using Real Time amplification and detected using specific primers and a fluorescent reporter dye probe for Legionella.
Legionellae are aerobic gram-negative bacteria associated with respiratory infections. To date, more than 50 Legionella species with 70 serogroups are known, many of which cause disease in humans. The vast majority of such cases (>85%) are due to L. pneumophila, with a substantial minority due to other species, most commonly L. micdadei, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, and L. longbeachae.
Legionellae are ubiquitous in environmental water sources and may cause sporadic as well as epidemic cases, which can be nosocomial, community-acquired and travel-associated. Aerosol-generating systems such as faucets, showerheads, whirlpools, cooling towers, and nebulizers aid in the transmission of Legionella from water to air. Afterwards, human inhalation or aspiration of contaminated water droplets into the lower respiratory tract leads to Legionella infections and disease outbreaks.
Legionellosis classically presents as two distinct clinical entities, Legionnaires ’ disease (LD), a pneumonia with severe multisystem disease, and Pontiac fever, a self-limited flu-like illness. Legionnaires’ disease presents additional non-specific symptoms include fever, non-productive cough, myalgias, dyspnea and diarrhea, and neurological findings such as headache and lethargy. Pontiac fever is also characterized by malaise, myalgia, and fever; but it is a milder non-pneumonic infection.
Diagnostic delay may also result in increased mortality rates among the elderly and patients with severe underlying disease. Although culture is considered the “gold standard” for detection of Legionella, its growth is slow and fastidious. Therefore other strategies to ensure a rapid diagnosis have been developed. Among them, several PCR assays targeting the rRNA genes, and the macrophage infectivity potentiator gene (mip) have been reported.